Rizal 101

Project in Rizal Subject by Daniel Lorenzo Submitted to Ma'am Joan Tenda

Sunday, September 24, 2006









Josephine Bracken











Suzanne Jacoby







Nellie Boustead


Gertude Beckett O Sei kiyu San



Leonor Rivera





Leonor Valenzuela








Segunda Katigbak

Rizal, the Romantic
There were at least nine women linked with Rizal; namely Segunda Katigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, Leonor Rivera, Consuelo Ortiga, O-Sei San, Gertrude Beckette, Nelly Boustead, Suzanne Jacoby and Josephine Bracken. These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence, charm and wit.

Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela

Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Unfortunately, his first love was engaged to be married to a town mate- Manuel Luz. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda, then came Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl from Pagsanjan. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink, that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye.


Leonor RiveraLeonor Rivera,

his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel. Unfortunately, Leonor’s mother disapproved of her daughter’s relationship with Rizal, who was then a known filibustero. She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her, sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping, her mother’s choice.

Consuelo Ortiga

Consuelo Ortiga y Rey, the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters, fell in love with him. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his best poems. The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance, because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo.

O Sei San

O Sei San, a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission, he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job.

Gertrude BeckettWhile Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he boarded in the house of the Beckett family, within walking distance of the British Museum. Gertrude, a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. She fell in love with Rizal. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude, who was seriously in love with him. Before leaving London, he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship.

Nellie Boustead

Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera, entertained the thought of courting other ladies. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz, he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host, Eduardo Boustead. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. Antonio Luna, Juan’s brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads, courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid, a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. Fortunately, Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting tragedy for the compatriots.
Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. It failed because Rizal refused to be converted to the Protestant faith, as Nellie demanded and Nellie’s mother did not like a physician without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. The lovers, however, parted as good friends when Rizal left Europe.

Suzanne JacobyIn

1890, Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. In Brussels, he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. In time, they fell deeply in love with each other. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid.

Josephine Bracken

In the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18-year old petite Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happy disposition. She was Josephine Bracken, the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizal’s security.

Rizal asked Josephine to marry him, but she was not yet ready to make a decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer. Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable, he left for Hon Kong on March 1895. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila. Upon her return to Dapitan, Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. However, the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby, a result of some incidence, which might have shocked or frightened her.


Sketches and Painting Made by Rizal

Title: Saturnina RizalMaterial: OilRemarks: Now in Rizal Shrine in Fort Santiago

Title: Dapita church curtainsMaterial: OilRemarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894

Title: A painting on a pair of mother-of-pearl Material: OilRemarks: Shells painted by Rizal in Dapitan and given as a gift to Doña Leonor Valenzuela and later passed into the hands of Doña Margarita Valenzuela

Title: Spanish coat of armsMaterial: Water colorRemarks: Done during a fiesta of San Rafael in Calamba in 1867

Title: Allegory on a pair of porcelain bases of the new year celebrationMaterial: OilRemarks: Made in Berlin in 1886

Title: Christ crucifiedMaterial: CrayonRemarks: 1875

Title: Immaculate ConceptionMaterial: CrayonRemarks: Made in Manila, 1974

Title: Portrait of MoraytaMaterial: CrayonRemarks: Made in Barcelona, 1885

Title: Singapore lighthouseMaterial: Ink or pencilRemarks: Sketch book of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 or the diary

Title: Along Suez CanalMaterial: Ink or pencilRemarks: Sketch book of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 or the diary

Title: Castle of St. Elmo Material: Ink or pencilRemarks: Sketch book of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 or the diary

Title: AdenMaterial: Ink or pencilRemarks: Sketch book of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 or the diary

Title: Fishes caught in DapitanMaterial: InkRemarks: Made in Dapitan, 18 in number

Title: Sketch of himselfMaterial: Remarks: Made in the training class in sketching

Title: Pencil sketch of Dr. BlumentrittMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made in Leitmeritz, 1886

Title: Monkey and the TurtoiseMaterial: InkRemarks: Made by Rizal in the album of Mrs. Juan Luna in Paris in 1886

Title: Segunda KatigbakMaterial: InkRemarks:

Title: Brooklyn BridgeMaterial: PencilRemarks: De Nueva York (illustration) diary. Made in 1886

Title: SulpakanMaterial: InkRemarks: Epistolario Rizalino

Title: Father Pablo PastellsMaterial: Remarks: Lost

Title: Room in which El Filibusterismo was begunMaterial: CrayonRemarks: Made in October 1887 in Calamba

Title: Two sketches without descriptionMaterial: CrayonRemarks: Madrid diary of January 1884. Academy of San Fernando

Title: A landscape and sketch of a figureMaterial: Remarks: Madrid diary of January 1884. Academy of San Fernando

Title: Side sketch of Rizal's nurseMaterial: Remarks:

Title: Side sketch of Señor MonroyMaterial: Remarks:

Title: Sketch of artist JuanchoMaterial: Remarks:

Title: Padre BurgosMaterial: Remarks:

Title: Mt. MakilingMaterial: Remarks:

Title: Sketches of his stay in JapanMaterial: InkRemarks: Made in 1888

Title: Imitation of Japanese artMaterial: InkRemarks: Made in 1888

Title: Studies of passengers of SS DjemnahMaterial: PencilRemarks: Sketchbook of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882

Title: Parting view of ManilaMaterial: PencilRemarks: Sketchbook of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882
Title: Cover of Noli Me TangereMaterial: InkRemarks: Now in the original Noli Me Tangere in Bureau of Public Libraries

Title: Rizal family treeMaterial: Remarks: Made in Dapitan

Title: Heads of Sibili CumanaMaterial: InkRemarks: Made in Dapitan. Included in the Sibila Cumana

Title: Antonio de MorgaMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made in London while annotating "Sucecos"

Title: Sketch of friends in Cafe MadridMaterial: ChalkRemarks: Lost

Title: Sketches of scenery and Filipino customsMaterial: Remarks: Sent to Dr. Czpelack in 1888 from London

Title: Pen sketches of Drs. de Wecker and Becker made by Rizal and inserted in a letter to Dr. ViolaMaterial: InkRemarks: Lost. Made in Madrid in 1886

Title: Sketch of the ascent of Mt. MakilingMaterial: PencilRemarks: Sent to Dr. Blumentritt

Title: Sketches of diary: De Heidelberg a Leipzig pasando por el RhinMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made in Germany, Switzerland and Italy in 1887

Title: Sketches of diary: De Marseille and Hong KongMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made on board the Djemnah in 1887

Title: Sketches of "Apuntas de Portificacion de Campaña"Material: InkRemarks: Made in London in 1888

Title: "Limang Salita"Material: InkRemarks: Made in Berlin 1886

Title: Notas ClinicasMaterial: InkRemarks: Made in Madrid in 1884-1885

Title: Sketch of the plan of their lodging house in 15 Baño, MadridMaterial: InkRemarks: Lopez Museum

Title: Sketches of archeological findings in Lumanao hillMaterial: InkRemarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894-1895

Title: Sketches in "Hundred Letters"Material: InkRemarks: May be seen in "100 Letters of Jose Rizal"
Title: Sketches of diary: De Marseille and Hong KongMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made on board the Djemnah in 1887

Title: Leonor RiveraMaterial: CrayonRemarks: Kept in original frame

Title: Sketches of diary: De Marseille and Hong KongMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made on board the Djemnah in 1887

Title: Sketch of himselfMaterial: InkRemarks: Sent to Dr. Blumentritt in 1887

Title: Sketch of Fritz UllmerMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made in Heidelberg in 1886

Title: Sketches of Spanish characters in MadridMaterial: InkRemarks: Made in Madrid in 1883

Title: Cartoons made in HeidelbergMaterial: InkRemarks: made in Heidelberg in 1886

Title: Sketch of Pastor Ullmer Material: PencilRemarks: made in Heidelberg in 1886

Title: Sketch of EphigeniaMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made in Heidelberg in 1886

Title: Sketch of a gladiatorMaterial: PencilRemarks: Made in Heidelberg in 1886

Title: Sketch of a boatMaterial: InkRemarks: Made in Leitmeritz in 1886



The Mercado - Rizal Family

The Rizals is considered one of the biggest families during their time. Domingo Lam-co, the family's paternal ascendant was a full-blooded Chinese who came to the Philippines from Amoy, China in the closing years of the 17th century and married a Chinese half-breed by the name of Ines de la Rosa.Researchers revealed that the Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Even Negrito blood aside from Chinese.Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda, and nine sisters and one brother.

FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898)Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Biñan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila.

TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913)Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and well-read. She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila.

SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913)Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas.

PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930)Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution.

NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician.

OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887)The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth.

LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919)The fifth child. Married Matriano Herbosa.

MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945)The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan, Laguna.JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896)The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896.

CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865)The eight child. Died at the age of three.

JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945)The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster.TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951)The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die.SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929)The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero.


JOSE RIZAL'S FAMILY TREE FROM PARENTS TO DESCENDANTS


-------------------------------------------------------- Created by: Job Guerrero Elizes In 2004. Update: 6/1/04 Contact: jobelizes@aol.com, job_elizes@yahoo.com, http://profiles.yahoo.com/job_elizes Please email corrections and expansion of names. Thanks. --------------------------------------------------------

Guide to Reading the Codes 0-means parents or original generation 1-means first born, 2-2nd born, 3-3rd, 4-4th, 5-5th, etc. One digit means first generation, Two digits means 2nd, Three means 3rd gen, 4 means 4th generation and so on. Example 1: JOSE RIZAL MERCADO is Code No. 7 One digit means he belongs to first generation Digit 7 means JOSE RIZAL is 7th born to FRANCISCO RIZAL MERCADO Example 2: GEMMA GUERRERO CRUZ is code No. 6321 Four digits means she belongs to 4th generation lst digit 6 means MARIA RIZAL MERCADO is 6th born to FRANCISCO 2nd digit 3 means MAURICIO CRUZ is 3rd born to MARIA 3rd digit 2 means ISMAEL CRUZ is 2nd born to MAURICIO 4th digit 1 means GEMMA is lst born to ISMAEL CRUZ
--------------------------------------------------------- FAMILY TREE FOLLOWS: ------------------------------------------- 0. FRANCISCO RIZAL MERCADO, 1820s + TEODORA ALONSO, 1830s. Married in 1848 in Kalamba. During 1850s Francisco changed his name from Mercado to Rizal per Spanish Decree authorizing such changes. But Francisco and some children continued to use Mercado to avoid confusion in their merchant activities although his children were born with Rizal family name, like Jose Protacio Rizal. Year of births given below are mere estimation and subject to corrections.
------------------------------------------- . . 1. SATURNINA RIZAL (MERCADO),1849? + MANUEL HIDALGO . . . . 11. ALFREDO RIZAL HIDALGO,1875? + AURORA TIAOQUI . . . . . . 111. ANGEL HIDALGO,1900? + WIFE? . . . . . . 112. ARMANDO HIDALGO,1902? + WIFE? . . . . . . 113. LOURDES HIDALGO,1904? + HUSBAND? . . . . 12. ADELA RIZAL HIDALGO,1877? + JOSE VER . . . . . . 121. JOSE VER JR,1902? + WIFE? . . . . . . 122. BERNARDINO VER,1904? + WIFE? . . . . . . 123. EMMA VER,1906? + RAMON REYES . . . . . . 124. PURISIMA VER,1908? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 125. AURORA VER,1910? + FELIX GONZALEZ . . . . 13. ABELARDO RIZAL HIDALGO,1879? + WIFE? . . . . 14. AMELIA RIZAL HIDALGO,1881? + HUSBAND? . . . . 15. AUGUSTO RIZAL HIDALGO,1883? + WIFE? ------------------------------------ . . 2. PACIANO RIZAL (MERCADO),1851? + SEVERINA DECENA . . . . (NO DESCENDANTS) Paciano is the only brother of Jose Rizal. As both of them have no descendants, the surname Rizal ended with both of them. All their 9 sisters were either married or remained single and their descendants assumed their espouses surnames(not Rizal). -------------------------------------------- . . 3. NARCISA RIZAL (MERCADO),1853? + ANTONIO LOPEZ . . . . 31. EMILIO LOPEZ,1878? + WIFE? . . . . 32. ANGELICA LOPEZ,1880? + BENITO ABREAU . . . . . . 321. ANA ABREAU,1905? + CONRADO GARCIA . . . . 33. ANTONIO LOPEZ,1880s? + EMILIANA RIXAL . . . . . . 331. EUGENIA LOPEZ,1907? + VIVENCIO VILLARUZ . . . . . . 332. FRANCISCO LOPEZ I,1909? + WIFE? . . . . . . 333. FRANCISCO LOPEZ II,1911? + MABAIT CONCEPCION . . . . . . 334. EDMUNDO LOPEZ,1913? + RUFINA DE GUZMAN . . . . . . 335. JOSE LOPEZ I,1915? + WIFE? . . . . . . 336. JOSE LOPEZ II,1917? + ELENA TALAO . . . . 34. ISABEL LOPEZ,1880s - Died early in 1887 . . . . 35. MARIA CONSOLACION (CONSUELO) LOPEZ,6/14/1882 + HUSBAND? . . . . 36. LEONCIO LOPEZ,1888? + NATIVIDAD ARGUELLES . . . . . . 361. ASUNCION LOPEZ,1913? + ANTONIO BANTUG . . . . . . . . 3611. LEANDRO LOPEZ-RIZAL BANTUG (DINKY), 1930s? CEO/OWNER, Design Intl Selections Inc. . . . . . . 362. CARMEN LOPEZ,1915? + RICARDO CONSUNJI . . . . . . . . 3621. RICARDO CONSUNJI III, 1940s? . . . . . . . . 3622. DITAS O. CONSUNJI, 1950s? . . . . . . 363. NATIVIDAD LOPEZ,1917? + VICENTE FRANCISCO . . . . . . 364. LEANDRO LOPEZ,1919? + WIFE? . . . . 37. FRANCISCO LOPEZ,1890? + WIFE? . . . . 38. ARSENIO LOPEZ,1892? + WIFE? . . . . 39. FIDELA LOPEZ,1894? + HUSBAND? ---------------------------------------------- . . 4. OLIMPIA RIZAL (MERCADO),1855-1887 + SILVESTRE UBALDO . . . . 41. CESARIO RIZAL UBALDO, 1880s? + WIFE? . . . . 42. ARISTEO RIZAL UBALDO,1883 + LEONARDA LIMJAP . . . . . . 421. MARITA UBALDO,1905? + FRANCISCO MARASIGAN . . . . . . 422. OLIMPIA UBALDO,1907? + ANTONIO LOZANO . . . . . . 423. LEONARDA UBALDO,1909? + TOMAS TIRONA . . . . . . 424. PAZ UBALDO,1911? + ALFREDO FILART . . . . 43. BABY - OLIMPIA RIZAL UBALDO died giving birth to this 3rd child in 1887. --------------------------------------------- . . 5. LUCIA RIZAL (MERCADO),1857? + MARIANO HERBOSA (Raised 8 children, but only 7 listed here. Subject to further corrections) . . . . 51. PAZ RIZAL HERBOSA,1882? + HUSBAND? . . . . 52. VIRGINIA RIZAL HERBOSA,1884? + HUSBAND? . . . . 53. DELFINA RIZAL HERBOSA,1886? + SALVADOR NATIVIDAD . . . . . . 531. PAZ NATIVIDAD,1911? + HUSBAND? . . . . 54. JOSE RIZAL HERBOSA,1888? - Died young. . . . . 55. CONCEPCION RIZAL HERBOSA,1890? + HUSBAND? . . . . 56. PATROCINIO RIZAL HERBOSA,1892? + HUSBAND? . . . . 57. TRALINIO RIZAL HERBOSA,1894? + LUCINA VYTINGCO . . . . . . 571. JOSE HERBOSA,1919? + WIFE? . . . . . . 572. LUCIA HERBOSA,1921? + ANTONIO ARCEGA . . . . . . 573. LUIS HERBOSA,1923? + EMILIANA ANGELES . . . . . . 574. ESTANISLAO HERBOSA,1925? + FELICIDAD MONTES (WIFE1) . . . . . . . . 5741. CONCEPCION HERBOSA,1950? +MANDASTICO DUTERTA . . . . . . . . 5742. MARIANO HERBOSA,1952? + EVELINA GARCIA . . . . . . . . 5743. ESTANISLAO HERBOSA JR,1954? + JUANA JAVIER (WIFE1) + PAZ CABRERA (WIFE2) . . . . . . . . 5744. FELICIDAD HERBOSA,1956? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . . . 5745. PAZ HERBOSA,1958? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . . . 5746. KLINA HERBOSA,1960? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . . . 5747. ANGELINA HERBOSA,1962? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 574. (REPEAT) ESTANISLAO HERBOSA,1925? + FORTUNATA MENDOZA (WIFE2) . . . . . . . . 5748. FRANCISCO HERBOSA,1963? + ZENAIDA GUIDOTE . . . . . . . . 5749. DELFINA HERBOSA,1965? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . . . 574-10. RAFAEL HERBOSA,1967? + WIFE? . . . . . . . . 574-11. ENRIQUE HERBOSA,1969? + PACITA BONCAN . . . . . . . . . . . 574-11-1. ANTONIO BONCAN HERBOSA + WIFE? Principal, Corporate Fiance Division, Punongbayan & Araullo, 19th Fl, Tower 1, The Enterprise Center, Ayala Avenue, Makati City. Tel.(632)887-9482 Fax.(632)886-5506. http://www.punongbayan-araullo.com. antonio.b.herbosa@pna.ph . . . . . . . . . . . . 574-11-2. ENRIQUE BONCAN HERBOSA JR. + WIFE? . . . . . . . . . . . . 574-11-3. EDGARDO BONCAN HERBOSA + WIFE? . . . . . . . . . . . . 574-11-4. PATRICIA BONCAN HERBOSA + HUSBAND? -------------------------------------------------------- . . 6. MARIA RIZAL (MERCADO),1859? + DANIEL CRUZ . . . . 61. PETRONA RIZAL CRUZ,1884 + HUSBAND? . . . . 62. ENCARNACION RIZAL CRUZ,1886? + ROSENDO BANAAG . . . . . . 621. SIMEON BANAAG,1911? + WIFE? . . . . . . 622. MERCEDES BANAAG,1913? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 623. CLEMENCIA BANAAG,1915? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 624. PAZ BANAAG,1917? + BIENVENIDO LAUREL . . . . . . 625. MARIA BANAAG,1919? + ROBETO LAUREL . . . . 63. MAURICIO RIZAL CRUZ,1888? + CONCEPCION ARGUELLES . . . . . . 631. CARIDAD CRUZ,1913? + PEDRO SYQUIA . . . . . . 632. ISMAEL CRUZ,1915 + CARMEN GUERRERO . . . . . . . . 6321. GEMMA CRUZ-MISS INTL.,1942? + MR.ARANETA . . . . . . . . 6322. ISMAEL CRUZ JR,1944? + WIFE? . . . . . . 633. ESPERANZA CRUZ,1917? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 634. FE CRUZ,1919? + VLADIMIR GONZALEZ . . . . . . 635. HILDA CRUZ,1921? + BENJAMIN ALDABA . . . . 64. PAZ RIZAL CRUZ,1890? + HUSBAND? . . . . 65. PRUDENCIO CRUZ,1892? + WIFE? --------------------------------------------------- . . 7. JOSE PROTACIO RIZAL (MERCADO),6/19/1861-12/30/1896 + JOSEPHINE BRACKEN (NO DESCENDANTS) --------------------------------------------------- . . 8. CONCEPCION RIZAL (MERCADO),1863? + HUSBAND OR UNMARRIED? (NO DESCENDANTS) --------------------------------------------------- . . 9. JOSEFA (PANGGOY) RIZAL (MERCADO),1865? - Died in 1882 due to cholera epidemic. (NO DESCENDANTS) --------------------------------------------------- . . 10. TRINIDAD RIZAL (MERCADO),1867? + UNMARRIED (NO DESCENDANTS) -------------------------------------------------- . . 11. SOLEDAD RIZAL (MERCADO),1870 + PANTALEON QUINTERO (Raised 5 children. Names below subject to further corrections, because it listed only 2 children & several grandhildren). . . . . 11-1. TRINITARIO RIZAL QUINTERO,1894? + MARIA SAN MATEO . . . . . . 11-11. RAFAEL QUINTERO,1919? + CONCORDIA PAGULAYAN . . . . . . 11-12. MARIA QUINTERO,1921? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 11-13. CARMEN QUINTERO,1922? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 11-14. MARIO QUINTERO,1924? + MILAGROS IBASCO . . . . . . 11-15. RAMON QUINTERO,1926? + WIFE? . . . . . . 11-16. LETICIA QUINTERO,1928? + MOISES SACAPANO . . . . . . 11-17. GLORIA QUINTERO,1930? + JUAN BOHOYO . . . . . . 11-18. SERAFIN QUINTERO,1932? + VIOLETA SABAN . . . . . . 11-19. JOSE MA. QUINTERO,1934? + WIFE? . . . . 11-2. AMELIA RIZAL QUINTERO,1896? + BERNABE MALVAR . . . . . . 11-21. JOSE MALVAR,1921? + AGUSTINA ARCEGA . . . . . . 11-22. ANTONIO MALVAR,1923? + WIFE? . . . . . . 11-23. FRANCISCO MALVAR,1925? + WIFE? . . . . . . 11-24. ANGELITA MALVAR,1927? + PORFIRIO GOCO . . . . . . 11-25. JOSEFINA MALVAR,1929? + OSCAR GUZMAN . . . . . . 11-26. TOMAS MALVAR,1931? + WIFE? . . . . . . 11-27. MANUEL MALVAR,1933? + WIFE? . . . . . . 11-28. LOURDES MALVAR,1935? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 11-29. TERESITA MALVAR,1937? + HUSBAND? . . . . . . 11-2-10. NATIVIDAD MALVAR,1938? + HUSBAND?



Philosophies in Life by Jose Rizal

PHILOSOPHY may be defined as the study and pursuit of facts which deal with the ultimate reality or causes of things as they affect life.The philosophy of a country like the Philippines is made up of the intricate and composite interrelationship of the life histories of its people; in other word, the philosophy of our nation would be strange and undefinable if we do not delve into the past tied up with the notable life experiences of the representative personalities of our nation.Being one of the prominent representatives of Filipino personalities, Jose Rizal is a fit subject whose life philosophy deserves to be recognized. Having been a victim of Spanish brutality early in his life in Calamba, Rizal had thus already formed the nucleus of an unfavorable opinion of Castillian imperialistic administration of his country and people.Pitiful social conditions existed in the Philippines as late as three centuries after his conquest in Spain, with agriculture, commerce, communications and education languishing under its most backward state. It was because of this social malady that social evils like inferiority complex, cowardice, timidity and false pride pervaded nationally and contributed to the decay of social life. This stimulated and shaped Rizal’s life phylosophy to be to contain if not eliminate these social ills.

Educational PhilosophyRizal’s concept of the importance of education is clearly enunciated in his work entitled Instruction wherein he sought improvements in the schools and in the methods of teaching. He maintained that the backwardness of his country during the Spanish ear was not due to the Filipinos’ indifference, apathy or indolence as claimed by the rulers, but to the neglect of the Spanish authorities in the islands. For Rizal, the mission of education is to elevate the country to the highest seat of glory and to develop the people’s mentality. Since education is the foundation of society and a prerequisite for social progress, Rizal claimed that only through education could the country be saved from domination.

Rizal’s philosophy of education, therefore, centers on the provision of proper motivation in order to bolster the great social forces that make education a success, to create in the youth an innate desire to cultivate his intelligence and give him life eternal.

Religious PhilosophyRizal grew up nurtured by a closely-knit Catholic family, was educated in the foremost Catholic schools of the period in the elementary, secondary and college levels; logically, therefore, he should have been a propagator of strictly Catholic traditions. However, in later life, he developed a life philosophy of a different nature, a philosophy of a different Catholic practice intermingled with the use of Truth and Reason.Why the change?It could have been the result of contemporary contact, companionship, observation, research and the possession of an independent spirit.Being a critical observer, a profound thinker and a zealous reformer, Rizal did not agree with the prevailing Christian propagation of the Faith by fire and sword. This is shown in his Annotation of Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas.Rizal did not believe in the Catholic dogma that salvation was only for Catholics and that outside Christianity, salvation was not possible even if Catholics composed only a small minority of the world’s religious groups. Nor did he believe in the Catholic observation of fasting as a sacrifice, nor in the sale of such religious items as the cross, medals, rosaries and the like in order to propagate the Faith and raise church funds. He also lambasted the superstitious beliefs propagated by the priests in the church and in the schools. All of these and a lot more are evidences of Rizal’s religious philosophy.

Political PhilosophyIn Rizal’s political view, a conquered country like the Philippines should not be taken advantage of but rather should be developed, civilized, educated and trained in the science of self-government.He bitterly assailed and criticized in publications the apparent backwardness of the Spanish ruler’s method of governing the country which resulted in:

1. the bondage and slavery of the conquered ;
2. the Spanish government’s requirement of forced labor and force military service upon the n natives;
3. the abuse of power by means of exploitation;
4. the government ruling that any complaint against the authorities was criminal; and
5. Making the people ignorant, destitute and fanatic, thus discouraging the formation of a national sentiment.

Rizal’s guiding political philosophy proved to be the study and application of reforms, the extension of human rights, the training for self government and the arousing of spirit of discontent over oppression, brutality, inhumanity, sensitiveness and self love.

Ethical PhilosophyThe study of human behavior as to whether it is good or bad or whether it is right or wrong is that science upon which Rizal’s ethical philosophy was based. The fact that the Philippines was under Spanish domination during Rizal’s time led him to subordinate his philosophy to moral problems. This trend was much more needed at that time because the Spaniards and the Filipinos had different and sometimes conflicting morals. The moral status of the Philippines during this period was one with a lack of freedom, one with predominance of foreign masters, one with an imposition of foreign religious worship, devotion, homage and racial habits. This led to moral confusion among the people, what with justice being stifled, limited or curtailed and the people not enjoying any individual rights.To bolster his ethical philosophy, Dr. Rizal had recognized not only the forces of good and evil, but also the tendencies towards good and evil. As a result, he made use of the practical method of appealing to the better nature of the conquerors and of offering useful methods of solving the moral problems of the conquered.To support his ethical philosophy in life, Rizal:

1. censured the friars for abusing the advantage of their position as spiritual leaders and the ignorance and fanaticism of the natives;
2. counseled the Filipinos not to resent a defect attributed to them but to accept same as reasonable and just;
3. advised the masses that the object of marriage was the happiness and love of the couple and not financial gain;
4. censured the priests who preached greed and wrong morality; and
5. advised every one that love and respect for parents must be strictly observed.

Social PhilosophyThat body of knowledge relating to society including the wisdom which man's experience in society has taught him is social philosophy. The facts dealt with are principles involved in nation building and not individual social problems. The subject matter of this social philosophy covers the problems of the whole race, with every problem having a distinct solution to bolster the people’s social knowledge.Rizal’s social philosophy dealt with;
1. man in society;
2. influential factors in human life;
3. racial problems;
4. social constant;
5. social justice;
6. social ideal;
7. poverty and wealth;
8. reforms;
9. youth and greatness;
10. history and progress;
11. future Philippines.

The above dealt with man’s evolution and his environment, explaining for the most part human behavior and capacities like his will to live; his desire to possess happiness; the change of his mentality; the role of virtuous women in the guidance of great men; the need for elevating and inspiring mission; the duties and dictates of man’s conscience; man’s need of practicing gratitude; the necessity for consulting reliable people; his need for experience; his ability to deny; the importance of deliberation; the voluntary offer of man’s abilities and possibilities; the ability to think, aspire and strive to rise; and the proper use of hearth, brain and spirit-all of these combining to enhance the intricacies, beauty and values of human nature. All of the above served as Rizal’s guide in his continuous effort to make over his beloved Philippines.





Dr.Jose Rizal




The Reign of Greed (English Translation of El Filibusterismo by Charles E. Derbyshire)

NOTE: The entire novel may be downloaded as a text file (*.txt) from the following URL:
http://www.gutenberg.net/1/0/6/7/10676/10676.txt


Noli Me Tangere

Note: The Entire Novel can be downloaded in a Text File (*.txt)
ftp://ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext04/8sccn10.txt

The Indolence of the Filipinos (Works of Rizal)

Buod: Ang Katamaran ng mga Pilipino

Ang sanaysay ni Jose Rizal na "Katamaran ng mga Pilipino" (La indolencia de los Filipinos) ay sinulat niya para magbigay tugon sa pagbabansag sa mga Pilipino na tamad. Ang ibig sabihin ng sanaysay na ito sa Ingles, "The Indolence of the Filipinos", ay "little love for work, lack of activities". Ayon kay Rizal, ang pagbabansag na ito ay may katotohanan. Sinabi niya na may mga dahilan at sanhi kung baket masasabi na ang mga Pilipino ay mga tamad.
Ayon sa kanya, ang pangunahing sanhi ay ang mainit na klima ng Pilipinas. Nahihirapan ang mga Pilipino na gumawa dahil sa init ng araw na tumitinag sa kanilang mga balat. Masasabi na ang katamaran ng mga Pilipino ay dahil na rin sa pagsakop ng Kastila sa Pilipinas. Noong bago pa dumating ang mga Kastila, nakikipagkalakalan na ang mga Pilipino sa Tsina at sa ibang karatig na bansa, nagsasaka, nag-aalaga ng mga manok, naghahabi ng mga tela at damit, at iba pa. Subalit nang dumating ang mga Kastila, pinatamlay niya ang mga kalakalan na ito at nagresulta nang di-pag-usad ng industriya ng Pilipinas at ng mga produktong niluluwas. Salungat noon na nakakapagsaka sila ng malaya, ang mga Pilipino noong panahon ng Kastila ay makakapagsaka lang kapag may pahintulot na ng pamahalaan. At kung magtatanim naman sila, ang kapalit naman ng kanilang produkto ay maliit na halaga lang. Ang mga patakaran ng pamahalaan katulad ng sapilitang paggawa at pagbabawal ng pagkakaroon ng sandata at baril ay naging sanhi din ng katamaran ng mga Pilipino. Dahil sa sapilitang paggawa, hindi nagkaroon ng katiyakan ang kanilang kabuhayan at nang lumaon sila'y naging pabaya. Dahil sa pagbabawal ng pagkakaroon ng sandata at baril, maraming Pilipino ang namatay sa kamay ng mga piratang galing ng Sulu at Mindanaw. Nagbunga ito ng pagbagsak ng industriya at sakahan sa mga lugar na nilusob ng mga pirata at pinabayaan na lang ang mga ito dahil na rin sa walang pera para isaayos at buhayin pa ang mga ito at hindi sila tinutulungan ng pamahalaan noon. Ayon pa kay Rizal, ang mga kasakiman at pagmamalabis ng mga encomendero at gobernador ay nagdulot din ng mga pamatay-sigla upang ang mga Pilipino ay gumawa. Noong panahon ng Kastila, tinitingala ng mga Pilipino ang mga Kastila, na hindi gumagawa ng mabibigat na gawain. Dahil dito, ginagaya nila ito para masabi na sila'y "parang mga Kastila", na maaaring kahulugan ay Panginoon o maginoo. Ang mga Pilipino din noon ay naniwala sa mga kura paroko na nagsasabi na ang mga mayayaman ay hindi pupunta sa langit kapag ito'y namatay na. Natanim sa isip ng mga Pilipino noon na hindi na dapat gumawa upang hindi na yumaman. Isa pang nagpalala sa katamaran ng mga Pilipino ay ang pagsusugal. Umaasa na lang sa swerte ang mga Pilipino noon para lang mabuhay. Ang masamang sistema ng edukasyon noon ay nagdulot din ng mababang pagkilala sa sarili. Ani nga ni Rizal, "buhat sa pagkabata ay wala silang natutunan kundi ang pagkilos na parang makina na hindi nalalaman ang buong kabagayan." Nagkaroon tuloy ng pag-aalinlangan at pagtutunggali ng isip at tungkulin ay naging ugat ng katamaran ng mga Pilipino. Iminulat sa tamad na pamumuhay ng mga monghe noon ang mga Pilipino kaya naging tamad sila. Iniukol nila ang kanilang salapi sa Simbahan upang magkaroon lang ng mga himala sa kanilang buhay. Isa pang nagpalala sa katamaran ng mga Pilipino ay ang di-pagkakaroon ng nasyonalismo dahil na rin pagkait sa karapatan na magtatag ng mga samahan na magbubuklod sana ng mga Pilipino. Tinamad ang mga Pilipino na makipag-usap at makipag-ugnayan sa mga ibang tao sa ibang lugar ng Pilipinas. Isa pang dahilan ay kapag mayroong isang Pilipino na nagtagumpay, hindi na nagaganyak ang iba pang Pilipino na magtagumpay dahil na naiisip naman nila na mayroong nang gagawa ng trabaho para sa kanila.

To the Young Women of Malolos (works of Rizal)
Buod: Liham sa mga Dalaga ng Malolos Isinasaad sa liham na ito ang mga papuri at pangaral ni Rizal sa mga dalaga ng Malolos. Dahil sa paghingi ng mga kababaihang ito ng isang bagay na kung saan nais nilang mithiin ang isang edukasyon upang malinang at mamulat ang kanilang mga kababayan. Sa kanyang mga papuri, sinabi niyang ang mga dalagang Pilipina ay mayumi, maganda, mahinhin, mabuting asal, malakas ang loob, at may paniniwala sa tunay na Maykapal. Sila ang pag-asa ng mga kabataan bilang ina dahil sa halimbawang ipinapamalas nila sa mga ito. Sila ang tanggulan na kung saan sila ang mga tagabigay ng lakas ng loob at mga natatanging halimbawa sa mga naruruwag. Sila at mga nagsisilbing ilaw sa mga kalalakihan upang tumibay ang mga panindigan para sa ikabubuti ng bayan. May mga ibang tao mang nagpupumilit na sumira sa kanilang kapurihan ay dapat lamang silang maipagtanggol. May mga salitang binibigkas ang mga dayuhan laban sa kanila na tunay ngang nakapangangalit subalit dapat nilang malaman ang tunay na ibig sabihin ng pagiging isang tunay na dalagang Pilipina. Marapat-dapat lamang silang papurihan at igalang mula sa pagkakakilala, panliligaw pangingibig at pagpapakasal sa kanila. Dili lamang ang iba'y nagpapakasal upang ilabas ang tunay nilang kaanyuan na ubod ng sama, ay dapat lamang iwaksi dahil hindi ito ang tunay na ibig sabihin ng pangingibig sa mga dalagang Pilipina. Binanggit din ni Dr. Jose Rizal ang aklat na ipinalimbag ni Dn. Sinibaldo de Mas na nagtataglay ng mga paglathala ng mga pari sa mga ikinumpisal ng mga babae sa kanila upang siraan ang mga ito. Subalit silang mga naninira ay gayun din namang tunay na sira at nahihibang upang sabihan ng ganto ang mga babae. Sa mga pangaral ni Rizal, sinabi niyang ang tunay na kabutihan asal ay yung mga nagninilay-nilay sa mga bagay-bagay sa kanilang paligid. Yung mga naniniwala sa katotohanan at yung mga hindi basta-basta nagpapadala sa mga sinasabi ng mga nagsasantu-santuhan. Dapat ang mga tao'y may paninidigan sa katotohanan. May mga paring nagsasabing ang pagiging banal ay ang pagtalima sa kanilang mga sinasabi at kanilang mga pangaral, subalit ang pagkundema sa mga sinasabi na isang "kamalian" di umano ay isang magandang halimbawa upang bigyang daan ang tama at nararapat sa tao. Ang matagal na pagluhod, pagsuot ng kung anu-ano upang mapalapit sa Diyos, pagbabayad o pagbibigay ng ari-arian sa simbahan ay isang halimbawa ng kapalaluan. Isang halimbawa ng kahibangan gayun ang Diyos nga ba ay mabibihisan mo ng iyong mga materyal na binibigay sa Kanya, samantalahang pinahiram ka lamang Nito. Sa kabila nuon, kanyang isinalaysay ang ibig-sabihin ng tunay na Diyos upang malaman nila ang sasambahin ng mga taong taos-pusong nag-aalay sa Kanya. Ikinumpara din niya ang mga Pilipinong babae at mga dayuhan, na ang pinagkaiba lamang ay ang kanilang pagkakatanaw sa "liwanag" at pinag-aralan. Palibhasa'y napagkaitan lamang ang mga Pilipino nito subalit hindi ito sapat na dahilan upang sirain ang kanilang pangalan. Pinaalalahanan din ni Rizal ang mga Pilipino na magbulay-bulay ang lahat at manindigan: Una: Nagtataksil ang iba dahil narin sa kataksilan ng iba at pagpapabaya sa mga ito. Ikalawa: Takot at walang pag-ibig sa sarili ang hindi kumukundema sa sariling inang palalo. Ikatlo: Parang isang hayop ang hindi pagninilay-nilay sa mga itinuturo sa kanila. Ikalima: Ang babaing Pilipina na hindi nakauunawa sa tunay na ibig-sabihin ng pagiging isang Pilipino ay walang karapatang magpalaki ng anak. Sapagkat pagmumulan lamang siya ng isang masamang sibul at kasiraan ng bayan. Ikaanim: Ang tao ay ipinanganak na malaya. Kaya't dapat lamang na matanto nya ang kabutihan at katotohanan upang maituwid niya ang sarili. Ikapito: Ibigin ang Diyos at ang Kanyang mga pangaral, dahil ito lamang ang daan upang siya ay mapalapit sa kabutihan at katotohanan. Sa liham ni Rizal sa mga kababaihan ng Malolos, hindi lamang ito ang kanyang nais sabihan at papurihan subalit ganun narin ang lahat ng kababayang Pilipina. Upang ang mga ito ay magnilay-nilay sa kanilang sitwasyon. Masasabi ring ang papuri at pangaral nito ay magbibigay ng ideya sa kanila upang hanapin ang kanilang paninindigan at nawa'y tunay na paniniwala sa tunay na Diyos.



Jose Rizal » Biography
BiographyJOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families. His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal, an industrious farmer whom Rizal called "a model of fathers," came from Biñan, Laguna; while his mother, Teodora Alonzo y Quintos, a highly cultured and accomplished woman whom Rizal called "loving and prudent mother," was born in Meisic, Sta. Cruz, Manila. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age 8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kabata," the theme of which revolves on the love of one’s language. In 1877, at the age of 16, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an average of "excellent" from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. In the same year, he enrolled in Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas, while at the same time took courses leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. He finished the latter course on March 21, 1877 and passed the Surveyor’s examination on May 21, 1878; but because of his age, 17, he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30, 1881. In 1878, he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors. On May 3, 1882, he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid. On June 21, 1884, at the age of 23, he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on June 19,1885, at the age of 24, he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of "excellent." Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia, he mastered 22 languages. These include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. A versatile genius, he was an architect, artists, businessman, cartoonists, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, ophthalmic surgeon, poet, propagandist, psychologist, scientist, sculptor, sociologist, and theologian. He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. In the hope of securing political and social reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen, Rizal, the greatest apostle of Filipino nationalism, published, while in Europe, several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies. In March 1887, his daring book, NOLI ME TANGERE, a satirical novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy, was published in Berlin; in 1890 he reprinted in Paris, Morga’s SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil; on September 18, 1991, EL FILIBUSTERISMO, his second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter, was printed in Ghent. Because of his fearless exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and clerical officials, Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. This led himself, his relatives and countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country. As a consequence, he and those who had contacts with him, were shadowed; the authorities were not only finding faults but even fabricating charges to pin him down. Thus, he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago from July 6, 1892 to July 15, 1892 on a charge that anti-friar pamphlets were found in the luggage of his sister Lucia who arrive with him from Hong Kong. While a political exile in Dapitan, he engaged in agriculture, fishing and business; he maintained and operated a hospital; he conducted classes- taught his pupils the English and Spanish languages, the arts. The sciences, vocational courses including agriculture, surveying, sculpturing, and painting, as well as the art of self defense; he did some researches and collected specimens; he entered into correspondence with renowned men of letters and sciences abroad; and with the help of his pupils, he contracted water dam and a relief map of Mindanao- both considered remarkable engineering feats. His sincerity and friendliness won for him the trust and confidence of even those assigned to guard him; his good manners and warm personality were found irresistible by women of all races with whom he had personal contacts; his intelligence and humility gained for him the respect and admiration of prominent men of other nations; while his undaunted courage and determination to uplift the welfare of his people were feared by his enemies. When the Philippine Revolution started on August 26, 1896, his enemies lost no time in pressing him down. They were able to enlist witnesses that linked him with the revolt and these were never allowed to be confronted by him. Thus, from November 3, 1986, to the date of his execution, he was again committed to Fort Santiago. In his prison cell, he wrote an untitled poem, now known as "Ultimo Adios" which is considered a masterpiece and a living document expressing not only the hero’s great love of country but also that of all Filipinos. After a mock trial, he was convicted of rebellion, sedition and of forming illegal association. In the cold morning of December 30, 1896, Rizal, a man whose 35 years of life had been packed with varied activities which proved that the Filipino has capacity to equal if not excel even those who treat him as a slave, was shot at Bagumbayan Field.

The Many-Sided Personality
Filipinos and foreigners alike have paid tribute to Jose Rizal claiming that his place of honor in history is secure. It was his Austrian bosom friend, Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, rector of the Imperial Atheneum of Leitmeritz, who said "Rizal was the greatest product of the Philippines and his coming to the world was like the appearance of a rare comet, whose rare brilliance appears only every other century." Another German friend, Dr. Adolf B. Meyer, director of the Dresden Museum who admired his all around knowledge and ability, remarked "Rizal’s many-sidedness was stupendous." Our own Dr. Camilo Osias pointed to him as the "versatile genius."His precocity since early boyhood turned into versatility in later years. Being curious and inquisitive, he developed a rare facility of mastering varied subjects and occupations.ActorRizal acted as a character in one of Juan Luna’s paintings and acted in school dramas.AgriculturistRizal had farms in Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte (1892-1896) where he planted lanzones, coconuts and other fruit-bearing trees.Ambassador Of Good WillHis friendliness, goodwill and cultural associations with friends entitled him as one.Animal LoverAs a small boy, Rizal loved animals including birds, fish, insects, and other specimens of animal life. Fowls, rabbits, dogs, horses, and cats constituted his favorites. As much as possible, he did not wish fowls to be killed even for food, and showed displeasure in being asked to eat the cooked animal. The family garden in Calamba abounded with insects galore and birds native to the Calamba environs. He wrote about and sketched animals of the places he had toured.AnthropologistHe made researches on the physical and social make up of man.ArcheologistRizal studied monuments and antique currency everywhere he went. He drew most of the monuments he saw.AsceticRizal always practiced self-discipline wherever he went.Book loverHe had a big library and brought many books abroad.BotanistRizal maintained a garden in Dapitan where he planted and experimented on plants of all kindsBusinessmanHe had a partner in Dapitan in the Abaca business there (1892-1896).CartographerHe drew maps of Dapitan, The Philippines and other places he visited.Chess PlayerHe played chess and bear several Germans and European friends and acquaintances.Citizen of the worldHis extensive travels and multitude of friends in Europe, Middle East and Asia made him one.CommentatorRizal always expresses and published his personal opinion.ConchologistHe had a good shell collection in Dapitan. An American conchologist praised him.EducatorRizal taught in his special school in Dapitan.EthnologistIn his travels, Rizal was able to compare different races and he noted the differences.Father of community schoolHe proposed college in Hong Kong and his special school in Dapitan made him a father of community schools.FencerHe fenced with Europeans and Juan Luna and other friends in Europe.Freemason abroadHe was member of La Solidaridad Lodge in Spain.Horticulture and farmerHe experimented on and cultivated plants in Dapitan.HistorianHis annotation of Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas entitled him as one.HumoristThere are many humorous incidents in the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo.IchthyologistHe collected 38 new varieties of fish in Dapitan.JapanophileHis admiration of Japanese traits and his knowledge of her language proved he was one.JournalistHe authored the published many articles in Spanish and English and London.Laboratory workerHe was employed in the clinic of Dr. L. Wecker in Paris.LinguistHe spoke over 20 foreign languages.Lover of truthHe chided Spanish writers for not writing the truth about the Filipinos. He was always truthful since boyhood.MusiciansHe played the flute and composed pieces of music and cultivated music appreciation.MythologistRizal used mythology in his Noli and Fili.NationalistHe gave full expression of the native spirit strengthened by world civilization and loved and defended everything Filipino.NewspapermanHe wrote and published articles in many publications and was one of the organizers of the La Solidaridad.OphthalmologistHe graduated in an ophthalmologic college in Spain.OrientalistRizal admired the special characteristic and beauties of Oriental countries peoples.PharmacologistRizal treasured and popularized the usefulness and preparation of cures for treatment of his patients.PhilologistRizal loved of learning and literature is unequalled.PhilosopherRizal not only loved wisdom but also regulated his life and enjoyed calmness of the life at all time Physical culturistRizal maintained a good health by exercising all parts of his body and eating proper foods PhysiciansHe treated several patients afflicted not only with eye diseases.Plant loverAs a child, Rizal spend most of his time in the family garden which was planted with fruit trees,Shrubs and decorative trees. His diaries contained detailed description and sketches of plants, flowers and fruits he saw in the places he visited. He wrote poems on flower he like very much as his poems To the Flowers of Heidelberg.PoetRizal wrote over 35 poems including his famous Ultimo Adios.PoliticianAlthough Rizal did not engage in Politics, he exposed the evils of the political activities of the Spaniards in the Philippines through his writing. PolyglotRizal spoke and wrote in 20 languages.ProofreaderIn Germany, He worked as a part-time proofreader of his livelihood.PropagandistAs a reformer, Rizal encourages the recommendation of improving the government entities and discourage abuses publishing articles.Public relation manHe worked for better cooperation of rulers and subjects in his country.ReformerHe published the modern methods of government administration, so changes could be made.ResearcherBeing a wide reader, he compared the old and new practices in life.RevolutionistRizal encouraged reforms, discouraged old, impractical usage, and desired new and useful laws to benefit his countrymen. He desired changes for the better.RhetoricianRizal has always practiced the art of persuasive and impressive speaking and writing.Rural reconstruction workerHe practiced rural reconstruction work in Dapitan in 1894 and succeeded.Sanitary engineerHis construction of a water system in Dapitan exemplified this practice by Rizal.ScientistRizal’s practice of many sciences here and abroad made him noted scientist.SculptorHis works of his father and of Father Guerrico, S. J. typified his sculptural ability.Sharp shooterHe could hit a target 20 meters away.SinologistRizal’s ancestry and his ability to speak Chinese made him one.SociologistIn Rizal’s study of Philippines social problems, he always encouraged and introduced solutions.SodalistHe always joined fraternities, associations and brotherhood, for self-improvement.SportsmanHe engaged from a surveying class at the Ateneo after passing his A. B. there.TouristHe was considered the foremost tourist due to his extensive travels.TravelerHe traveled around the world three times.Tuberculosis expertFor having cured himself of this disease, he became and was recognized as an expert.Youth leaderHe considered the youth as "the hope of his Fatherland."ZoologistHe was fond of pets. He researched later on their physiology, classification and habits.